Public Holidays and Festivals in Russia

Russia, a country rich in cultural traditions and historical events, celebrates a variety of public holidays and festivals that are deeply ingrained in its national identity. These occasions offer a window into the soul of Russian society, reflecting its historical milestones, cultural heritage, and contemporary values. From traditional holidays that have been observed for centuries to modern-day festivals that showcase Russia's evolving cultural landscape, each event is a testament to the nation's diverse and vibrant character. In this expanded article, we'll explore additional significant holidays and festivals, delving deeper into the customs and celebrations that define the Russian experience.

New Year's Day

New Year's Day, or Novy God, is the grand kickoff to the year in Russia and is arguably the most celebrated holiday. It's a time for joyous festivities, family gatherings, and elaborate fireworks. Russians often celebrate it with a festive meal, including traditional dishes like Olivier salad and caviar, and toast to the New Year with champagne. The holiday is also marked by the Ded Moroz (Father Frost) and Snegurochka (Snow Maiden) who bring gifts for children. The celebration often extends till January 2, making it a time of extended relaxation and enjoyment.

Orthodox Christmas Day

Orthodox Christmas Day, celebrated on January 7th, is a significant holiday for Russia's large Orthodox Christian population. This day commemorates the birth of Jesus Christ according to the Julian calendar. The holiday is observed with religious services, including the Christmas Eve Holy Supper, which features twelve dishes symbolizing the twelve apostles. The day is filled with a spiritual aura, with families attending church services and spending time together in reflection and celebration of their faith.

Defender of the Fatherland Day

Defender of the Fatherland Day, observed on February 23rd, honors Russia's military forces and veterans. Initially established to celebrate the founding of the Red Army, the holiday has evolved to recognize all men in Russia, serving as a counterpart to International Women's Day. Parades and ceremonies are common, with people paying tribute to the armed forces and honoring the men in their lives with gifts and appreciation.

International Women's Day

March 8th marks International Women's Day, a day dedicated to celebrating the achievements and importance of women in Russian society. This day is akin to a combination of Valentine's Day and Mother's Day, where men express their admiration and love for the women in their lives through gifts and flowers. It's a day of appreciation and recognition of women's roles, both in the professional sphere and in the household.

The Day of Spring and Labour

The Day of Spring and Labour, celebrated on May 1st, is a holiday that has its roots in the labor movement. It's a day to celebrate workers' rights and the onset of spring. The holiday is often marked by parades, political demonstrations, and speeches. It's also a day for relaxation and enjoying outdoor activities as the weather begins to warm up, marking a shift from the harsh Russian winter to the pleasant spring season.

Victory Day

Victory Day, observed on May 9th, is one of Russia's most revered holidays. It commemorates the victory over Nazi Germany in World War II and honors the sacrifices of millions of Russians who fought in the war. The day is marked by military parades, particularly the massive parade in Moscow's Red Square, along with fireworks and concerts. It's a day of national pride, remembrance, and respect for veterans and fallen soldiers.

Russia Day

Russia Day, celebrated on June 12th, marks the day Russia declared sovereignty from the Soviet Union in 1990. This relatively new holiday is a celebration of Russian independence and national pride. Festivities include concerts, fireworks, and cultural events showcasing the country's history and culture. It's a day of patriotic pride, where people reflect on Russia's past and its future.

Unity Day

Unity Day, observed on November 4th, commemorates the popular uprising that led to the expulsion of Polish-Lithuanian occupation forces from Moscow in 1612. It's a day to celebrate national unity and patriotism. The holiday was reinstated in 2005 to promote national unity and tolerance among ethnic and religious groups in Russia. Celebrations include parades, historical reenactments, and cultural events, symbolizing the diversity and unity of the Russian Federation.


Maslenitsa, also known as Pancake Week, is a traditional Russian festival celebrated during the last week before the onset of Orthodox Lent. This folk holiday is marked by feasting, merriment, and the making of blini – thin pancakes or crepes, symbolizing the sun. It's a time for people to indulge in food and joyful activities, including sledding, snowball fights, and bonfires. Maslenitsa concludes with the burning of a straw effigy, symbolizing the end of winter and the welcoming of spring.

Constitution Day

Constitution Day, celebrated on December 12th, marks the adoption of the Russian Constitution in 1993. This day is significant as it symbolizes Russia's post-Soviet transition to democracy and a constitutional republic. While it is more of a political observance than a festive holiday, Constitution Day is still an important milestone in Russia's contemporary history, reflecting the nation's journey towards establishing its modern identity.


Orthodox Easter is one of the most important religious holidays in Russia, celebrated with special church services and traditional customs. The date varies each year but typically falls in April or May. Families gather to paint eggs and prepare Easter bread, known as kulich. Churches hold midnight services, and people often greet each other with the phrase, "Christ is risen," to which the response is, "Truly, He is risen."

City Day Celebrations

Many Russian cities observe their own foundation days, known as City Day. These celebrations typically include parades, concerts, fireworks, and various cultural events. Moscow and St. Petersburg, for instance, celebrate their City Days with grand festivities, showcasing their rich history and modern vibrancy through a series of events that attract locals and tourists alike.

White Nights Festival

The White Nights Festival in St. Petersburg is an international arts festival during the season of the midnight sun, from May to July. This festival features classical ballet, opera, and music events, along with the famous Scarlet Sails celebration – a massive public event with a spectacular fireworks display and a show symbolizing the dreams and aspirations of youth.

In conclusion, the array of public holidays and festivals in Russia paints a vivid picture of the nation's soul. From traditional holidays steeped in history like Orthodox Easter and Maslenitsa to modern celebrations like City Day and the White Nights Festival, these events showcase Russia's rich cultural heritage and evolving identity. They are times of remembrance, joy, and national pride, bringing together people from all walks of life to celebrate their history, beliefs, and aspirations. Understanding these holidays and festivals is key to appreciating the depth and diversity of Russian culture and its enduring spirit.

Upcoming Holidays (next six months)

Russia Day June 12 Wednesday Public Holiday
Unity Day November 04 Monday Public Holiday

Holidays by Year

Previous Year: 2023
This page was last edited on 02 February 2024 at 10:36 PM (EST).